I have heard on numerous occasions that teaching reading before the age of 6 is harmful. In many schools this hoax is deeply ingrained and they do not teach reading or writing until they reach primary school. It is also spreading to families. This hoax is reproducing and increasing inequalities among students because some children do have more interactions with everything that has to do with reading at home and others can only have this opportunity at school. I am concerned about the impact this hoax is having on the achievement of academic success for boys and girls who come from environments that are already at risk of social exclusion.
Evidence shows that the first childhood (0-3 years old) is a critical period for human development that has consequences on learning, among others. The positive effects of promoting skills related to reading, such as interactions with letters, sounds, poetry, listening and the dialogues where the reading is dialogued through comments or questions have been proved. Authors such as Vygotsky or Montessori were in favor of teaching to reading and writing from very young ages and today neuroscience has demonstrated that it is the optimal period for the greatest learning to take place. It can be done in many ways, including letters and words in games, reading stories and books to amplify the vocabulary and discussing around what is being read, taking turn to speak and giving the oportunities to provide reasons.
Castro, D. A. S., & Barrera, S. D. (2019). The contribution of emergent literacy skills for early reading and writing achievement. Trends in Psychology, 27(2), 509-522. https://www.scielo.br/pdf/tpsy/v27n2/2358-1883-tpsy-27-02-0509.pdf
García-Carrión, R., & Villardón-Gallego, L. (2016). Dialogue and interaction in early childhood education: A systematic review. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 51-76. https://hipatiapress.com/hpjournals/index.php/remie/article/view/1919
Cabrera, N. J., Jeong Moon, U., Fagan, J., West, J., & Aldoney, D. (2020). Cognitive Stimulation at Home and in Child Care and Children’s Preacademic Skills in Two‐Parent Families. Child development, 91(5), 1709-1717. https://srcd.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cdev.13380