Proposals to force “vulnerable” children to spread out create racism and failure, not inclusion

Scientific Evidence Platform Scientific evidence Proposals to force “vulnerable” children to spread out create racism and failure, not inclusion


  • Slavin, R. E. (1990). Achievement effects of ability grouping in secondary schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of educational research, 60(3), 471-499.
  • Caldas, S.J., Bankston III. C.L., & Cain, J.S. (2007). A Case Study of Teachers’ Perceptions of School Desegregation and the Redistribution of Social and Academic Capital. Education and Urban Society, 39(2), 194-222.
  • Khalfaoui, A., García-Carrión, R. & Villardón-Gallego, L. A. (2020). Systematic Review of the Literature on Aspects Affecting Positive Classroom Climate in Multicultural Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49, 71–81
  • Khalfaoui, A., García-Carrión, R. & Villardón-Gallego, L. A. (2020). Bridging the gap: engaging Roma and migrant families in early childhood education through trust-based relationships. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal , 28(5), 701-711
  • Zubiri-Esnaola, H.; Vidu, A.; Rios-Gonzalez, O. & Morla-Folch, T. (2020). Inclusivity, participation and collaboration: Learning in interactive groups. Educational Research. 162-180
  • Campdepadrós-Cullell, R., Molina-Roldán, S., Ramis-Salas, M., & de Botton, L. (2020). The Vic Model: From school redistribution to xenophobic voting. Political Geography, 83, 102254.



There are decades of scientific evidence demonstrating that inclusion benefits all students, not only vulnerable ones, both in their academic results, values and emotions. Those countries and schools advancing in inclusion overcome segregation and exclusion with successful educational actions. They do not force vulnerable children and their families to spread out in other schools in what was named busing (because they were forcefully distributed to schools they had not chosen far from home in buses). Busing created racism, not improvements of the results. Segregation is to label children from some cultural groups as the cause of the bad results of as school provoking the prophecy that fatally fulfils, not taking into account the Pygmalion effect. Those proposing to force children to spread out do not propose it for white, rich families, they do it only for poor ones labelling themas problematic.




  • Braddock, J. H., & Slavin, R. E. (1992). Why ability grouping must end: Achieving excellence and equity in American education.
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Gontzal Uriarte

This article analyces some integration/redistribution policies in UK and it’s outcomes:
1) Increase of racism
“Racial violence against Muslim pupils was just the starkest reaction to this
forced integration. An analysis of letters published in the local press reveals how
the policy of school mergers managed to engender a generalised white backlash
against what was quickly seen as ‘integration by stealth’ and ‘social engineering’.
An excerpt from a letter to the local paper encapsulates the way school desegre-
gation, an idea believed to be imposed by political elites on to white working-
class neighbourhoods, was seen as a belligerent force with the potential to foster
racial divisions:”
2) Xenophobic vote and xenophobic activism:
“The Burnley ward was a particular electoral stronghold for
the BNP, which became the official opposition party on Burnley Council during
the run-up to the May 2003 local elections. The BNP also won its first ever county
council seat in 2009 by ending twenty years of Labour control. Currently, the BNP
has just one council seat, but this does not reflect the extent of far-right activity,
given the rise of the popular street activism of the English Defence League (EDL),
as seen through a number of high-profile public demonstrations by the EDL
Burnley division.”
Miah, S. (2012). School desegregation and the politics of ‘forced integration.’ Race & Class, 54(2), 26–38.

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