· Passero. (2020). MALE LEADERSHIP IN WOMEN’S FOOTBALL: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF COACHING AND REFEREE POSITIONS. Movimento, 26. https://doi.org/10.22456/1982-8918.100575
· Aitchison. (2005). Feminist and gender research in sport and leisure management: Understanding the social-cultural nexus of gender-power relations. Journal of Sport Management, 19(4), 422–441. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.19.4.422
· Burton. (2015). Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: A review of research. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.02.004
MALE LEADERSHIP IN WOMEN’S FOOTBALL: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF COACHING AND REFEREE POSITIONS
This article studies the female occupation in the Brazilian women’s football championship since its creation (2013) to 2019. It is analyzed the number of referees, coaches, assistants, physical trainers, masseurs, among other things.From here, the study reflects a male predominance (86%) with a slight increase in the number of women in the recent years. However, the presence of the women is higher in referee position. A 39% of the women are referees and a 59% are assistants referees. In addition, we appreciate how coaching and refereeing positions have been slowly increasing in recent years, but gender inequality is still persist in leadership and visibility position.
FEMINIST AND GENDER RESEARCH IN SPORT AND LEISURE MANAGEMENT: UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL-CULTURAL NEXUS OF GENDER-POWER RELATIONS
In this one, we observe an analysis of gender relations in sport management and leisure a develop of a critique that integrates social theory and cultural analysis. Different data collected in a national study made by the author in 1998/99 and secondary data is extracted from comparative studies conducted in Austria, New Zealand, Canada and the United States are used. Research show that women’s experience in sport management is determined by structural and cultural factors. The need for new perspectives is highlighted. It recognizes the difficulty of gender-power relations instead of work and recognizes the interconnection between structural and cultural power, opening the way for gender equality in this sector.
UNDERREPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN SPORT LEADERSHIP: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH
This article explains that, despite the increasing opportunities for participation of girls and women in sport, they are underrepresented in leadership positions at all levels. The main objective is to understand why these are so few in leadership positions. A study is conducted that includes stereotypes of leader, issue of discrimination, and gender organizational cultures. Finally, this study explores women’s expectations in leadership positions, occupational rotation intentions, and the influence they have on them. In addition, the author identifies new areas of research and additional recommendations on how best to increase the number of women in leadership positions within sports.
After analyzing the three articles, we can see how men continue to lead in women’s sports. They hold important positions and women are under-represented. We observe how in the Brazilian Fooball Championship, there is a male predominance, in particular, of 86% (Passero, 2020).
In addition, we can see that this predominance of the male sector is not restricted in the Brazilian Championship, we also find it in the rest of the world. An analysis shows us that in sports management, leaders are chosen for structural and cultural factors. Although there has been an increase in opportunities for women to participate in recent years, their representation remains very low. (Aitchison, 2005) (Burton, 2015).
This problem is important because despite the significant growth in women’s sport in recent years, we still find cases of inequality in important positions. The author of the third article (Bruton, 2015) recommends a series of areas of research and recommendations to increase the number of women in leadership position within sports. These facts must come to light in order to change over the years and to eliminate these inequalities that still persist today.