Gender-Based Violence exists in all social levels

Scientific evidence platform Scientific evidence Gender-Based Violence exists in all social levels
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  • Puigvert, L., Gelsthorpe, L., Soler-Gallart, M. & Flecha, R. (2019). Girls’ perceptions of boys with violent attitudes and behaviours, and of sexual attraction. Palgrave Communications, 5(56),
  • Puigvert, L., Valls, R., Garcia Yeste, C., Aguilar, C., & Merrill, B. (2017). Resistance to and Transformations of Gender-Based Violence in Spanish Universities: A Communicative Evaluation of Social Impact. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.
  • Torras-Gómez, E.; Puigvert, L.; Aiello, E.; Khalfaoui, A. (2020). Our Right to the Pleasure of Falling in Love. Frontiers in Psychology.



As these articles show (Puigvert et al., 2017; 2019; Torras-Gómez, 2020), it is not true that gender-based violence affects women who are economically dependent or from low socio-economic backgrounds. Gender-based violence and sexual harassment exist in all social levels, and it can affect women from different ages, socio-economic status, countries, professions, etc., from adolescents, university students and professors, to working-class women, among others.


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For this research I have looked at different points of view of different authors, and the studies they have looked at or carried out, to finally make a decision about this statement, which unfortunately does not have enough scientific evidence. First of all, we must be clear, according to Pelegrín et al. (2009), that the data obtained on the profiles of women who suffer gender-based violence comes from the data of the women who report, therefore, we are talking about the percentage of 10% of women. However, there are authors who risk giving a profile according to studies carried out, such as González Sala et al. (2009), who affirm that some of the profiles of battered women. What this author does is to look at different factors and thus draws the following conclusions: that the abused woman is predominantly unemployed (81.7%), the most frequent work activities are those related to domestic services or cleaning (62.3%), that the cases according to the ethnicity investigated between payos, gypsies, immigrants and mixed give a higher result in payas women (58.3) and that they have no studies, unfinished EGB (63.9%). Disproving this last percentage, Arredondo-Provecho et al. (2008) conducted a study in which their findings showed that 72.8% of the victims of gender violence were immigrant women. And supporting this idea we can see how Vives-Cases et al., (2009), affirms that immigrant women, as they suffer greater vulnerability, are more likely to suffer gender violence. Following Pelegrín’s line, other authors such as González and Bejarano (2014) state that violence against women continues to be an “invisible phenomenon” because it is found in the private sphere of different situations. But they go a step further and say that this violence could come from “an imbalance in the power relations between men and women in the social, economic, religious and political spheres”. So we can say that there is scientific controversy about this issue and that we also have little scientific evidence given the very low number of quantified cases of gender violence. And that no research has been done outside this range.  

Arredondo-Provecho, A. B., del Pliego-Pilo, G., Nadal-Rubio, M., & Roy-Rodríguez, R. (2008). Knowledge of and opinions on violence against women among health professionals in specialized care. Enfermería Clínica, 18(4), 175-182.

González Sala, F., & Gimeno Collado, A. (2009). Domestic Violence: Women’s Profile With Social Care. Psychosocial Intervention, 18(2), 165-175.

González, G. C., & Bejarano, R. C. (2014). Gender violence: trends, impact and keys for approach. Enfermería Global, 13(1), 424-439.

Pelegrín, M. M., & Berges, B. M. (2009). Aspectos básicos en el estudio de la violencia de género. Iniciación a la investigación, (4).

Vives-Cases, C., Gil-González, D., Plazaola-Castaño, J., Montero-Piñar, M. I., Ruiz-Pérez, I., Escribà-Agüir, V., … & G6 para el Estudio de la Violencia de Género en España. (2009). Knowledge of and opinions on violence against women among health professionals in specialized care. Gaceta Sanitaria, 23, 100-106

Elisa González and Claudia Gràcia

Sexist violence is not only physical and psychological violence, it is also the non-
recognition of rights.

Sometimes justice and the administrations are the causes of this violence, that is why a
review of our protocols and ways of acting must be carried out. So that we can detect and
solve these situations efficiently and fairly for all, regardless of gender.
States should be encouraged to generate public policies and laws with a feminist
perspective so that women can demand and understand their rights.
In areas such as employment, sexual and reproductive rights, health and even education,
there are sexist behaviors. These are just some of the multiple scenarios where women
are treated unequally or with inferiority.
The act of creating policies and protocols with a feminist perspective will provide women
not only with more security, but also with more opportunities to know when their rights
are being violated.
Developing and creating programs and mechanisms to detect institutional violence can
help women of all ages to recognize their position and demand their rights and equal
Serra Perelló, L. (n.d.). El reconeixement de les violències institucionals: una nova eina
per exigir els drets de les dones. Idees.
Perez, C. C. (2021). Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. Harry N.

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